Laravel (10) working and Concepts in Details

Ashutosh Kukreti

As we already knew, Laravel is a web application framework that works on top of the PHP language. It provides a modular, flexible, and easily maintainable structure for building modern web applications. Here is how Laravel works:

  1. Routing: Laravel's routing system is responsible for handling incoming requests to the application. Laravel provides an elegant syntax for defining application routes, which can be easily customized to suit specific application requirements.
  2. Middleware: Middleware is a mechanism for filtering incoming requests before they reach the application's core. Middleware can be used for a variety of purposes, including authentication, validation, and handling exceptions.
  3. Controllers: Controllers are responsible for processing requests that come from the routing system. Controllers are classes that contain methods for handling specific routes and performing the necessary actions.
  4. Models: Models represent the data and business logic of the application. Laravel provides an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) system called Eloquent, which makes it easy to work with database records using a simple and expressive syntax.
  5. Views: Views are responsible for rendering the output of the application to the user. In Laravel, views are typically written in the Blade templating language, which provides a concise and expressive syntax for creating dynamic HTML content.
  6. Database: Laravel makes it easy to work with databases using the Eloquent ORM. Eloquent provides a simple and intuitive syntax for querying and manipulating database records.
  7. Artisan CLI: Laravel comes with a powerful command-line interface called Artisan. Artisan provides a wide range of commands for performing common development tasks, such as generating boilerplate code, running database migrations, and running tests.

Overall, Laravel provides a comprehensive and flexible framework for building modern web applications, with a focus on simplicity, elegance, and maintainability.

How Laravel Handle Requests?

The request lifecycle in Laravel is a series of steps that happen whenever a user makes a request to a Laravel application. The request lifecycle consists of the following steps:

  1. HTTP Request: The user sends an HTTP request to the Laravel application, which is typically handled by the web server.
  2. Bootstrap: The first step in the Laravel request lifecycle is the bootstrap process. In this step, Laravel initializes the framework and sets up the environment.
  3. Routing: The second step is the routing process. In this step, Laravel matches the incoming request to a route and then calls the associated controller method.
  4. Middleware: The third step is the middleware process. Middleware provides a way to filter incoming requests and modify the response before it is returned to the user. Laravel comes with a set of built-in middleware, and developers can also create their own middleware.
  5. Controller: The fourth step is the controller process. In this step, the controller method is executed to perform the requested action. The controller typically interacts with the model and returns a response to the user.
  6. Model: The fifth step is the model process. In this step, the controller interacts with the model to retrieve or modify data. The model represents the data and database interactions for the application.
  7. View: The sixth step is the view process. In this step, the controller sends data to the view, which then generates the HTML response. The view represents the presentation layer of the application.
  8. Response: The final step is the response process. In this step, Laravel sends the response back to the user. The response can be in the form of HTML, JSON, or any other supported format.

By understanding the request lifecycle in Laravel, developers can better understand how the framework works and how to build robust and efficient applications.

Significance of Kernel.php in Laravel

The Kernel.php file is an important part of Laravel framework, which is located in the app/Http directory. It contains the HTTP kernel and Console kernel classes, which are responsible for handling HTTP requests and console commands, respectively.

The HTTP kernel class handles all the incoming HTTP requests and dispatches them to the appropriate route handler. It provides a mechanism for processing middleware before and after the route handler is executed. Middleware can perform a wide range of tasks, such as validating input, authenticating users, logging requests, and more. The HTTP kernel class also handles exceptions and errors that occur during the processing of a request.

The Console kernel class, on the other hand, handles all the console commands that are executed using the Laravel Artisan CLI. It defines a set of commands that can be executed on the command line, such as php artisan migrate to run database migrations or php artisan make:controller to generate a new controller.

Both the HTTP kernel and Console kernel classes are registered in the bootstrap/app.php file, which is the entry point for the Laravel application. The Kernel.php file provides a simple and flexible way to handle HTTP requests and console commands in Laravel, making it easy to build robust and scalable web applications.


The bootstrap process is the initial step that sets up the application environment and loads all the necessary components required to run the application. The bootstrap process takes place in the bootstrap directory and is mainly controlled by two files:

  1. app.php: This file loads the basic configurations, service providers, and environment-specific settings for the application. It also sets up some important Laravel components, such as the application container, the error handler, and the Facade system.
  2. autoload.php: This file loads the Composer autoloader, which is responsible for loading all the dependencies required by the application.
  3. cache: This directory contains the application cache files. Laravel caches the configuration files, routes, and other frequently used files in this directory to improve the application's performance.

During the bootstrap process, Laravel sets up the environment and loads all the necessary files and settings required to run the application. Once the bootstrap process is complete, the application is ready to receive requests and respond to them.


Routing in Laravel refers to the mechanism of defining the application's endpoints or URLs and mapping those URLs to specific actions or functions. Laravel provides a simple and elegant way of defining routes through its powerful and expressive routing engine.

Laravel's routing engine is responsible for matching incoming HTTP requests with registered routes and invoking the associated controller method. Laravel supports a variety of HTTP verbs such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, and PATCH, and enables developers to define routes with various parameters such as required, optional, and regular expression constraints.

Routing in Laravel is defined in the routes directory, which contains two files: web.php and api.php. The web.php file is responsible for defining routes that are part of the application's web interface, while the api.php file is responsible for defining routes that are part of the application's API.

Here's an example of a simple route definition in Laravel's web.php file:

Route::get('/', function () {
    return view('welcome');

In this example, a GET request to the root URL of the application (/) will invoke the anonymous function defined as the second argument, which returns a view named welcome.

Laravel also allows developers to define named routes and to group related routes. Here's an example of a named route definition in Laravel:

Route::get('user/{id}', function ($id) {
    // Do something here

In this example, a GET request to a URL that matches the pattern user/{id} will invoke the anonymous function and pass the id as a parameter. The route is also given the name profile, which can be used to generate URLs to this route later in the application.

Laravel also supports route middleware, which allows developers to add additional logic to be executed before or after the request is handled by the route. Route middleware can be used for authentication, authorization, logging, and many other purposes.

Overall, Laravel's routing engine provides a flexible and powerful mechanism for defining application endpoints and mapping them to specific actions, making it easy to build robust and maintainable web applications.


In Laravel, middleware is a type of software that allows you to add additional functionality to your application's HTTP requests. Middleware sits between the incoming request and the application's response, allowing you to modify or filter the request and response as needed.

Middleware can be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

  1. Authentication: Middleware can be used to check whether a user is authenticated before allowing them to access certain routes or pages in your application.
  2. Authorization: Middleware can also be used to check whether a user is authorized to perform a certain action, such as creating, updating, or deleting a resource.
  3. Logging: Middleware can be used to log incoming requests and responses, allowing you to track the activity of your application and troubleshoot issues.
  4. Performance optimization: Middleware can be used to optimize your application's performance by caching responses, compressing data, or minimizing network requests.

Laravel comes with several built-in middleware classes, such as the "auth" middleware for authentication and the "csrf" middleware for CSRF protection. You can also create your own middleware classes to add custom functionality to your application's HTTP requests.

To use middleware in Laravel, you need to register it in your application's kernel. The kernel is responsible for managing the application's HTTP requests and responses. You can register middleware as global middleware, which will apply to all incoming requests, or as route middleware, which will only apply to certain routes or groups of routes.

Here's an example of how to register middleware in Laravel:

  • Define your middleware class:
php artisan make:middleware MyMiddleware
  • Implement the middleware logic in the handle method of your middleware class:
public function handle($request, Closure $next)
    // Perform middleware logic here

    return $next($request);
  • Register the middleware in your application's kernel:
protected $middleware = [
    // ...

Once your middleware is registered, it will be applied to all incoming requests (if you registered it as global middleware) or to certain routes (if you registered it as route middleware).

We'll also discuss middleware in the upcoming posts.


In Laravel, a controller is a class that handles incoming HTTP requests and returns an HTTP response. Controllers are the intermediary between your application's models and views, and they are responsible for processing data and making decisions based on that data.

A controller typically contains several methods, each of which corresponds to a different route or action in your application. For example, you might have a UserController that contains methods for displaying a user's profile, updating a user's information, and deleting a user's account.

Here's an example of a simple controller in Laravel:


namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class UserController extends Controller
    public function index()
        // Display a list of users

    public function show($id)
        // Display a specific user's profile

    public function update(Request $request, $id)
        // Update a user's information

    public function destroy($id)
        // Delete a user's account

In this example, the UserController contains methods for displaying a list of users, displaying a specific user's profile, updating a user's information, and deleting a user's account. Each method corresponds to a different HTTP route and performs a different action on the application's data.

To use a controller in your application, you need to define routes that correspond to the methods in your controller. You can do this using Laravel's routing system, which maps incoming requests to the appropriate controller method based on the URL and HTTP method.


Models in Laravel are used to interact with the database and represent data as objects. While models don't handle HTTP requests directly, they can be used in conjunction with controllers to handle HTTP requests and perform CRUD operations on the database.

To create a new model in Laravel, you can use the make:model command provided by Laravel's Artisan CLI. This command will generate a new model class in the app/Models directory by default.

Here's an example of a basic model in Laravel:

namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class User extends Model
    protected $fillable = ['name', 'email', 'password'];

In this example, the User model extends the Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model class, which provides convenient methods for interacting with the database. The $fillable property specifies which attributes can be mass-assigned when creating or updating a model instance.

To retrieve data from the database using a model, you can use the various query builder methods available in Laravel. For example, to retrieve all users from the database, you can use the all method:

$users = User::all();

To create a new user in the database, you can create a new instance of the model and call the save method:

$user = new User;
$user->name = 'John Doe';
$user->email = '';
$user->password = bcrypt('password');

To update an existing user in the database, you can retrieve the user instance, update its attributes, and call the save method:

$user = User::find(1);
$user->name = 'Jane Doe';

Overall, models provide a convenient way to interact with the database and represent data as objects in Laravel applications.


n Laravel, views are typically used within controllers to generate the HTML content that is sent back to the client as an HTTP response. Views contain HTML markup mixed with PHP code that can be used to dynamically generate the content.

To use a view within a controller in Laravel, you can use the view function to specify the name of the view and any data that should be passed to it:

public function index()
    $users = User::all();
    return view('users.index', ['users' => $users]);

In this example, the index method of the controller retrieves all users from the database and passes them to the users.index view. The view can then iterate over the users and display them in the HTML content.

Within the view file, you can use various Laravel directives to generate dynamic content. For example, the @foreach directive can be used to iterate over a collection of data and generate HTML markup for each item:

    @foreach ($users as $user)
        <li>{{ $user->name }}</li>

In this example, the @foreach directive iterates over the $users collection passed to the view and generates an <li> element for each user's name.

Views in Laravel can also be extended and composed to provide a flexible way to generate reusable HTML components. This can be especially useful for generating complex layouts that are used across multiple pages of your application.

Overall, views in Laravel provide a powerful way to generate dynamic HTML content for your application's HTTP responses, and can be used in conjunction with controllers to handle HTTP requests and generate the appropriate responses.


In Laravel, the Response class provides a convenient way to generate HTTP responses that can be sent back to the client. Responses can contain a variety of content types, including HTML, JSON, and file downloads.

To create a new response in Laravel, you can use the response function and pass in the content and any additional options:

return response('Hello, world!');

In this example, the response function generates a new response with the text Hello, world! as the content. By default, the response will have a status code of 200 and the appropriate content type header for text content.

You can also specify a status code and additional headers for the response:

return response('Unauthorized', 401)->header('Content-Type', 'text/plain');

In this example, the response function generates a new response with the text Unauthorized as the content, a status code of 401, and a Content-Type header of text/plain.

In addition to plain text responses, Laravel provides several helper functions for generating responses in other formats. For example, the json function can be used to generate a JSON response:

$data = ['name' => 'John', 'email' => ''];
return response()->json($data);

In this example, the json function generates a new response with the specified data as a JSON object.

To generate a response that downloads a file, you can use the download function:

$path = storage_path('app/file.txt');
return response()->download($path);

In this example, the download function generates a new response that prompts the user to download the file located at the specified path.

Overall, the Response class in Laravel provides a flexible way to generate HTTP responses that can be used to send various types of content back to the client.

Thats all for this post. See you in the next laravel tutorial.